In anthropology, liminality is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that . Turner also worked on the idea of communitas, the feeling of camaraderie associated among a group experiencing the same liminal. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as a loanword in cultural anthropology and the social sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing. Liminality, the Liminoid and Communitas: Why Rites of Passage Matter Still Turner: “I see [the liminal] as a kind of institutional capsule or pocket which.

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Van Gennep, who coined the term liminality, published in his ‘Rites de Passage’, a work that explores and develops the concept of liminality in the context of rites in small-scale societies.

Ritual passage to adulthood almost always in cohort groups ; graduation ceremonies, etc. Aldine Transaction Press, Turner noted that in “liminality,” the transitional state between two phases, individuals were “betwixt and between”—they did not belong to the society that they previously turned a part of, and they were not yet re-incorporated into that society. This sacred liminalitu is acquired during rites of passage, through the changing of positions.

Victor Turner

For the book by Percival and Paul Goodman, see Ajd book. He asserted that pilgrimage was, by its liminal nature, extraordinary, and not part of daily life and therefore not a part of the make up of everyday society.

The intuitions, not the tissue of logic connecting them, are what tend to survive in the field experience.


In moving from experience of social life to conceptualization and intellectual history, I follow the path of anthropologists almost everywhere. Turnef at the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, a rite of passage expressing communitas.

Liminality – Wikipedia

Finally, the positional meaning takes all symbols into account and concerns the relationship between them. Brooks states that the story “Caravan Park” in Berridge’s short story collection is an example of a story with a “liminal” setting, as it is set in a mobile home park; since mobile homes can be relocated, she states that setting a story in a mobile home ” University of Minnesota Press.

Turner’s perception of liminality, it should be noted, is in many respects an addition or correction to Mary Douglas ‘ somewhat dichotomic and static description ” ritual uncleaness “. In his theory of social dramas, Turner argued that there were four main phases of public action that lead to change:. Newer Post Older Post Home.

Communitas – Wikipedia

They are optional activities of leisure that place both the spectator and the competitor in in-between places outside of society’s norms. Texas Studies in Literature and Language.

Turner’s work on ritual stood as one of the most influential theories in anthropology during the twentieth century. An anthropological rite, especially a rite of passageinvolves some change to the participants, especially their social status. The stress of accomplishing tasks for college has been lifted, yet the individual has not moved on to a new stage in life psychologically or physically. Retrieved from ” https: The insights that Turner added to van Gennep ‘s concept of the liminal phase in rites of passage have been taken up by scholars in a wide variety of fields.

Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing liminality together. In the context of rites, liminality is being artificially produced, as opposed to those situations such as natural disasters in which it can occur spontaneously.


Industrialization cut the cord between work and the sacred, putting “work” and “play” in separate boxes that rarely, if ever, intersected. Noon and, more often, midnight can be considered liminal, the first transitioning between morning and afternoon, the latter between days. Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Beyond this structural template, Van Gennep also suggested four categories of rites that emerge as universal across cultures and societies.

An essay in comparative symbology” PDF. While employed there, he traveled to Uganda to conduct his fieldwork among the Gisu people.

It isn’t the subject’s expansion or multiplication but its exposure to what interrupts the closing and turns it inside out: In reality illegal immigrants communiyas but not “official”and stateless people, for example, are regarded as liminal because they are “betwixt and between home and host, part of society, but sometimes never fully integrated”.

Articles needing additional references from September All articles needing additional references All liminaltiy with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links. However, Agnes Horvath argues that the term can and should be applied to concrete historical events as offering a vital means for historical and sociological understanding.

In the children’s story The Phantom TollboothMilo ljminality “The Lands Beyond”, a liminal place which explains its topsy-turvy naturethrough a magical tollbooth.