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Retrieved from ” https: The courageous man, says Aristotle, sometimes fears even terrors that not everyone feels the need to fear, but he endures fears and feels confident in a rational way, for the sake of what is beautiful kalos —because this is what virtue aims at. Michael Davis translates it as pride.

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Aristotle then turns to examples, reviewing some of the specific ways that people are thought worthy of blame or praise. The primary division he observes in what kind of person would be called just is that, on the one hand, it could mean “law abiding” or lawful nominosand on the other, it could mean equitable or fair isos. But in chapter 12 he says that none of these things show that pleasure is not good, nor even the best thing.

A critical period in the history of this work’s influence is at the end of the Middle Ages, and beginning of modernitywhen several authors such as Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbesargued forcefully and largely successfully that the medieval Aristotelian tradition in practical thinking had become a great impediment to philosophy in their time. Broadie, Sarah; Rowe, Christopher Also, a wasteful person at least benefits someone. To understand how justice aims at what is good, it is necessary to look beyond particular good or bad things we might want or not want a share of as individuals, and this includes considering the viewpoint of a community the subject of Aristotle’s Politics.

The aim of magnificence, like any virtue, is beautiful action, not for the magnificent man himself but on public things, such that even his private gifts have some resemblance to votive offerings.

This raises the question of which pleasures are more to be pursued. This sort of justice deals with transactions between people who are not equals and looks only at the harm or suffering caused to an individual. One swallow does not make a summer Crisp: Aristotle focuses from this on to the idea that pleasure is unimpeded, and that while it would make a certain sense for happiness eudaimonia to be a being at work that is unimpeded in some way, being impeded can hardly be good.


Rackham translation used above. Aristotle now says that friendship philia itself is a virtue, or involves virtue. For this reason Aristotle claims it is important not to demand too much precision, like the demonstrations we would demand from a mathematician, but rather to treat the beautiful and the just as nikomahoca that aristotles so for the most part.

This highest activity, Aristotle says, must be contemplation or speculative thinking energeia As an example of popular opinions about happiness, Aristotle cites an “ancient one and agreed to by the philosophers”. The following page uses this file: This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it.

And because happiness is being described as a work or function of humans, we can say that just as we contrast harpists with serious harpists, the person who lives well and beautifully in this actively rational and virtuous way will be a “serious” spoudaios human.

In chaptersAristotle addresses some objections or questions that might be raised against his definition of happiness thus far. Now he will discuss the other type: The extremes to be avoided in order to achieve this virtue are paltriness Rackham or chintziness Sachs on the one hand and tastelessness or vulgarity on the other. When someone behaves in a purely animal-like way, then for better or worse they are not acting based upon any conscious choice.

According to this opinion, which he says is right, the good things associated with the soul are most governing and especially good, when compared to the good things of the body, or good external things. Aristotle closes by arguing that in any case, when one considers the virtues in their highest form, they would all exist together.

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They also tend not to be lenient to people for anything they could have chosen to avoid, such as being drunk, or being ignorant of things easy to know, or even of having allowed themselves to develop bad habits and a bad character. This in turn returns Aristotle to mention the fact that laws are not normally exactly the same as what is just: Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Politics of Philosophy: Often, Aristotle observes, these acts are caused by over-reaching or greed pleonexia and are ascribed to injustice.


Aristotle’s Dialogue with Socrates: Chapter 4 states that while most would agree to call the highest aim of humanity eudaimoniaand also to equate this with both living well and doing things well, there is dispute between people, and between the majority hoi polloi and “the wise”.

Such a person would be unfair in responses, angry at wrong people, and so on.

Pleasure is discussed throughout the whole Ethicsbut is given a final more focused and theoretical treatment in Book X. Justice in the Soul contrast V.

Book IV, Chapter 3.

This means that although no one is willingly unhappy, vice by definition always ni,omahova actions decided on willingly. Concerning accuracy and whether ethics can be treated in an objective way, Aristotle points out that the “things that are beautiful and just, about which politics investigates, involve great disagreement and inconsistency, so that they are thought to belong only to convention and not to nature “.

On the Nicomachean Ethics. A virtuous person feels pleasure when she performs the most beautiful or noble kalos actions. Help Center Find new research papers in: Aristotle The Nicomachean Ethics: Desire without understanding can become insatiable, and can even impair reason.

This style of building up a picture wherein it becomes clear that praiseworthy virtues in their highest form, even virtues like courage, seem to require intellectual virtue, is a theme of discussion Aristotle chooses to associate in the Nicomachean Ethics with Socrates, and indeed it is an approach we find portrayed in the Socratic dialogues of Plato.

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Nicomachean Ethics – Wikipedia

Chapter 3 goes on to elaborate on the methodological concern with exactness. To describe more clearly what happiness is like, Aristotle next asks what the work ergon of a human is. Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics. A final point that Aristotle makes in his discussion of distributive justice is that when two aristotles must be distributed, the lesser of the evils is the more choice worthy and as such sristoteles the greater good b Book IV Chapter 8.