Abstract. A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Jan 1;(1) Metabolic alkalosis in cattle. Easley R. PMID: ; [Indexed for MEDLINE]. Publication Types: Letter. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. Dec 1;76(23) [Pathogenesis of alkalosis and acidosis in ruminants]. [Article in German]. Slanina L. PMID:
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For instance, if there is a clinical disease causing hypoventilation in a dog and the dog is acidemic or pH is trending low towards acidemiawith a high pCO 2then there is a primary respiratory acidosis with a secondary or compensating metabolic alkalosis.
[Pathogenesis of alkalosis and acidosis in ruminants].
Electrolyte imbalance and acid—base imbalance E86—E87 As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions.
Abstract A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid magnesium oxide and a saline cathartic magnesium sulphate. Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Infobox medical condition new All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles ruminnants be expanded from April All articles to be expanded Articles with empty sections from April All articles with ruminnants sections Articles using small message boxes.
A respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation.
Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle
A mixed acid-base disturbance is quite common in animals and should be suspected in these situations:. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Metabolic alkalosis is caused by:. Diseases or drugs that inhibit the medullary respiratory center also produce a profound respiratory acidosis, e. Thus, titration or consumption of bicarbonate by a non-volatile non-chloride containing acid results in a alialosis anion gap metabolic acidosis.
Experimentally induced intestinal obstruction in sheep: Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide.
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In an uncomplicated metabolic alkalosis, the increase in HCO 3 — is usually proportional to the decrease in Cl — corr and the AG is normal. A titration or high anion gap acidosis is a primary acid-base disorder i. If there is a primary respiratory alkalosis with a compensatory hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, there will be a clinical disease or condition causing hyperventilation, the blood pH will be more alkaline than acidic because alkalosis is the primary disturbance and the pCO 2 will be quite low remember, compensation usually does not return the pH to normal.
With an uncomplicated high anion gap metabolic acidosis, the decrease in HCO 3 — is roughly equivalent to the increase in AG or unmeasured anions UA —. Am J Vet Res. Note that not all possible combinations are shown in this table.
If the pCO 2 is high, it indicates a primary respiratory acidosis. Note, that a respiratory disturbance cannot be detected from a biochemical panel and a respiratory disturbance does not alter BE.
This type of alkalosis usually responds to chloride supplementation, except for hyperaldosteronism which is very rare. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentrationcausing, e. A respiratory alkalosis is identified by a decreased pCO 2 and high pH or tendency towards one on a blood gas analysis. A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid magnesium oxide and a saline cathartic magnesium sulphate.
It can also be caused by administration of diuretics  and endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration pHbicarbonate ion concentration [HCO 3 -] and base excess were 7. The presence of a metabolic alkalosis high bicarbonate, low Cl — corr does not mean the metabolic alkalosis is a primary disorder. This can occur with loop and thiazide diuretics for more information, see renal physiology page relating to sodium absorption or excess sweating in horses lose potassium chloride.
As mentioned previously, the chemistry panel will not provide any information on the respiratory component of acid-base status. This article needs additional citations for verification. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is very effective so minimal changes in pH occur if the body is keeping up or the acid-base abnormality is mild. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Examples of rminants produced in the body are lactic acid from anaerobic metabolismketones diabetes mellitus, ketosis aokalosis, and acids phosphates [H 2 PO 4sulfates [H 2 SO 4 ] normally excreted by the kidneys that are produced from amino acid metabolism. Thank you Your feedback has been received. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. A metabolic alkalosis can be secondary to or in compensation for a primary respiratory acidosis.
Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ionsand the related excretion of bicarbonate[ citation needed ] both of which lower blood pH. Note that pneumonia alone unlikely to cause a respiratory acidosis since pCO 2 diffuses so readily across alveolar walls unless the lung involvement is extensive or there is concurrent respiratory muscle fatigue from a prior hypoxic or pain-induced hyperventilation.
A metabolic acidosis is identified by a decreased bicarbonate HCO 3 — and base excess BE on a blood gas analysisand a decreased HCO 3 — on ruminxnts chemistry panel.
D ICD – Remember that changes in serum proteins mostly albumin may impact the AG and should be considered when using these guidelines. Also, do not over-interpret mild changes in electrolytes or other test results; no analyzer or test is perfect! There are four primary types of acid-base disorders, which the body responds to compensates for or corrects.
Ventilation is stimulated by central and peripheral carotid or aortic bodies chemoreceptors. Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide MgO product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate MgSO 4.
This page was last edited on 27 Juneat Measurement of chloride and interpretation of changes in chloride.